Distribution and biological peculiarities in Armenia: The species distributed over most of western North America and from western Europe eastwards to Japan, Caucasus region of Eurasia, southeastern Asia, Northern Africa and large Mediterranean islands. Armenia is inhabited by subspecies A.c. homeyeri Severtzov, 1888. In Armenia the species occurs in low numbers in mountainous regions (up to 3,000 m a.s.l.), occupying steppe, scarce woodland, semi-desert, and alpine habitats, alternated with canyons or tall cliffs. In Armenia the species breeds only on the cliffs, placing nests in shallow cavities and ledges, having from 1 to 2 eggs in the clutch (very rarely - three). Golden Eagle is a year-round resident. The fledglings are observed in June-August. The diet of the species is very broad, as it takes mammals, birds, reptiles, carrion, sometimes even amphibians and insects, mainly depending on the regional prey availability.
Population dynamics: According to the last estimation, population of the species makes from 34 to 38 breeding pairs. In addition the roadside vehicular surveys show that the frequency of observing immature birds 1.5-2 times more than of adult birds. Direct persecution for the species regularly takes place mainly for trophy and for keeping the species as pet (without using it for hunting); some falconry activities recently have been recorded in Armenia and there is a risk of its progressing in the conditions of lack of appropriate regulations. Despite on that, the ten year population trend demonstrates relative stability and the lost birds in the pair are being recovered usually within two years. It appears that both: high number of non-breeding individuals and high rate of adaptability of the species, which allows it switching between food items, prevent strong population decline. Looking back it can be stated that population was more or less the same even in the period of economy crisis of Armenia, which was characterized with high level poaching on wild ungulates, hear, partridges, etc. For comparison, the populations of Black and Griffon Vultures have strongly declined in that period.
Conservation Measures: The species is included in Red Book of Animals of Armenia (2010) as VU and in Annex II of the Bern Convention. At current 9-12 breeding pairs of the species are protected in Khosrov Forest State Reserve, Zangezur Biosphere Complex, Lake Arpi National Park and Gnishik community-managed Protected Area. Some parts of the breeding ranges of most of other pairs are included in the Emerald Network, protected under Bern Convention. The proposed conservation measures include: (1) development of management plans for the Emerald Sites for improved protection of the breeding and foraging areas of the species; (2) revision of the legislation responsible for keeping wild animals as pets; (3) strengthening of control of the poachers and pet owners; (4) inclusion of the educational part in conditions for licensing of hunters.
Species sponsorship: The inventory and monitoring of Golden Eagles in Armenia is supported by private donors John and Dione Verulam, Michael and Pepi Huges, and Simon Prior-Palmer, and also by volunteers of the Armenian Birdwatching Association.