Distribution and biological peculiarities in Armenia: The species is distributed from southwestern Europe and northern Africa to the east up to India. Armenia is inhabited by the nominate subspecies N.p. percnopterus (Linnaeus, 1758). In Armenia the species breeds almost in entire country, occupying semi-deserts, mountain steppes, rarely juniper and deciduous woodlands alternated with the open areas. Although Egyptian Vultures breed on the cliffs, their requirements towards cliff's height are less strict than those of Griffon and Bearded Vultures. Thus, while some nest can be found at 100 and more meters above the ground, the others can be as low as 5-10 m. Elevation range occupied by the species varies from 600 to about 2,300 m a.s.l., although its breeding above 1800 meters is less frequent. Egyptian Vultures are migratory in Armenia. Preliminary information tells that Armenian population winters in Africa, and ongoing satellite tracking projects will hopefully clarify the question in more details. The species breeds in small caves and grotto, mostly avoiding covered ledges. Current data doesn't show any preferences for the cliff face. Observations of 1997-2016 show that the species is very conservative and rarely changes its nesting places. Pair often lays two eggs, and sometimes (probably depending on food availability) even raises both nestlings. The birds return from the wintering in March - April, therefore incubation period begins usually in April, and the fledglings leave the nest in late July - early August. The birds have been observed on migration mostly in September. Mainly Egyptian Vultures are feeding on medium and small size carrion (e.g. sheep, dog, fox, rodents, small and medium size birds, reptiles), often taking road kills and feeding on dumps. The birds, which live near the colonies of Griffon Vultures often have been observed visiting their nests, probably searching for the food remains. Among feeding objects freshly killed lizards occasionally have been observed. The feeding on turtles has not been reported for Armenia.
Population dynamics: According to the last estimation, population of the species makes from 52 to 56 breeding pairs. Population trend during last ten years in under computation, however preliminary it can be stated that minor decline occurs. The food supply for the species appears to be sufficient as all the observed nests contain enough food remains. The breeding success recorded in 2003-2004 makes 0.91 in average. Most of the threats for the breeding population are related to direct persecution for trophy or stealing nestlings and trapping adults for domestic trade (to keep as pets). Lack of education and public awareness causes anecdotal evidences of capturing the birds for falconry trade. Another possible threat comes from potential poisoning by lead, mercury, and other heavy metals at municipal dumps. It can happen mostly because in Armenia the separate garbage collection is not applied; it leads to disposing of the variety of electronic devices together with the food remains, causing potential pathway for the heavy metals to the vultures' organisms.
Conservation Measures: The species is included in the Red Book of Animals of Armenia (2010) as Endangered EN A2bcde+3bcde+4bcde. The breeding sites of the species are covered by some of the protected areas such as: Khosrov Nature Reserve, Zangezur Biosphere Complex, Dilijan, Lake Sevan, and Lake Arpi National Parks, Gnishik Community-managed Protected Area. Most of the other breeding sites are included in the Emerald Network, protected under Bern Convention (2016). Habitat use and migratory pattern of Egyptian Vultures can through additional lite on the local or global threats and at current are being studied in collaboration with the University of Utah. The proposed conservation measures include continuous monitoring of the species, taking potential poisoning into consideration; review of the policy on trophy collection, having animals as pets, and the trade; strengthening of inspection; improvement of the waste management at municipal dumps; and development of nation wide public outreach. Additional studies of habitat use an feeding behavior can help in organizing the conservation activities.